The year 2023 has been generally peaceful and stable. Yet, compared to previous years, there has been a significant increase in the risk of maritime and air security accidents and armed conflicts in the South China Sea. Throughout 2023, China, ASEAN countries, and relevant countries outside the region have continued to express their commitment to maintaining peace, stability, security, and order in the South China Sea. However, the disparities between maritime rights and security interests claims of the countries involved in the South China Sea dispute are becoming increasingly prominent. Moreover, countries outside the region have escalated their involvement in the security affairs of the South China Sea. The willingness to cooperate on South China Sea security policies has diminished, and the elements of confrontation have grown. Diplomatic disputes stemming from the South China Sea are expected, with numerous security incidents, sea and air confrontations, and low-intensity, non-military confrontations between maritime military and law enforcement forces. The likelihood of new maritime and air security emergencies in the South China Sea remains high, and the potential for armed conflicts triggered by unforeseen events should not be disregarded.